|Common Name||This tree is also known as Black Palm, Palmyra Palm, doub palm, palmyra palm, tala palm, toddy palm, wine palm, and ice apple|
|Scientific Name||Borassus flabellifer|
|Distribution||This tree is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is reportedly naturalized in Socotra and parts of China. It is also found in Tropical Asia and Africa.|
|Tree Size||This tree grows up to a height of 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, with a trunk diameter of 2-3 ft (.6-1 m).|
|Dried Weight ( average )||61 lbs/ft3 (970 kg/m3).|
|Specific Gravity||.79, .97|
|Janka Hardness||2,020 lbf (9,000 N)|
Black palm is a common name for many species of plants within the Palmae, together with Astrocaryum standleyanum, Borassus flabellifer, and Normanbya normanbyi (Queensland black palm). Technically this tree is neither a softwood nor a hardwood, the palm falls into the class of monocots, that additionally includes bamboo, grass, banana, rice, wheat, corn, etc. (Monocot is brief for monocotyledon, that merely means the seed of the plant contains one leaf, instead of two as found in dicots). Palm woods don't have any growth rings, and as a result, the shrinkage rate for drying the wood is additional or less uniform between the radial and tangential surfaces, leading to a T/R ratio of 1.0 and smart dimensional stability.
Black Palm is very variable in weight, strength, and hardness properties because the wood is therefore non-homogenous: the trunk could be a gradient between the robust fibrovascular bundles and therefore the softer cellulose structure. Toward the outer wall of the trunk, the density of the wood is the greatest, and step by step becomes lighter, softer, and weaker towards the softcore. With this nice variability, the density of Black Palm will vary from 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) to over 62 lbs/ft3 (1000 kg/m3) where it will truly sink in water. A fast visual examination of prospective wood blanks will facilitate screen out unsought pieces: darker wood sometimes incorporates a denser packing of fibers and tends to supply heavier, stronger, and more durable material.
Black Palm is reported to be sturdy relating to decay resistance, although it is prone to the attack of insects and pests.
Palms within the Palmaceae family are reported to cause skin irritation and general constitutional effects. Correct tools and protecting gear ought to be used to ensure safety.
The Black palm has several cultural significances like,
The palmyra palm tree is the official tree of Madras. Extremely revered in Tamil culture, it is referred to as "katpaha tharu" ("celestial tree") as a result of all its components have a use. Panaiveriyamman, named when panai, the Tamil name for the wine palm, is an ancient tree deity associated with fertility linked to this palm. This spiritual being is additionally referred to as Taalavaasini, a reputation that further relates her to all or any sorts of palms.
The Asian palmyra palm could be an image of Cambodia wherever it is a really common palm, found everywhere the country. It additionally grows close to the Angkor Wat temple.
In Indonesia, the palmyra palm tree is the symbol of South Celebes province.
This plant has captured the imagination of Bengalis, particularly within the words of Rabindranath Tagore whose narration 'Taal Gaach ek paye daariye' (তাল গাছ এক পায়ে দাড়িয়ে.., virtually Tall tree standing on one leg ... ) in Sahaj Path (সহজ পাঠ) could be a staple reading in most faculties in West Bengal & Bangladesh.
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, a palmyra tree is the chariot-banner of Bheeshma
Grain and Texture: Black Palm contains a medium to fine texture, although it is by no means even or uniform on account of the distinction between the dense, darker fibers, and the soft, lighter cellulose structure of the wood. The grain is extremely straight and contains no growth rings, knots, or defects. Being a monocot, end-grain characteristics are non-typical in comparison to a lot of familiar hardwood dicots. Black Palm contains a uniform distribution of black fibers embedded in a very softer yellow/brown body of parenchyma. Growth rings, sapwood, and rays are fully absent. Endgrain exhibits a dotted pattern distinctive to palm trees solely.
Workability: It tends to be quite challenging to work with both machine and hand tools. The hard fibers distinguish with the soft body of the wood, and it will be brittle and splinter or pull out quite simply. Very sharp tools and precise cutting angles are needed to get clean results. Applying a hardener or sanding sealer before final sanding/machining could assist in giving a more homogeneous density and cut back the chance of tearout. The lighter colored body of the wood tends to soak up larger quantities of the end, thus care should be taken throughout finishing. Using a sanding sealer is usually recommended to prevent this from happening.
Odor: No characteristic odor is produced by this wood whereas it gathers it or while operating with this wood.
Availability: Although Black Palm trees will get up to many feet across, the middle of the trunk is crammed with a soft, unfigured portion, with solely the outer areas of the trunk containing the characteristic colored fibers, thus solely narrow boards and spindle-stock are commonly out there. Costs for many sizes of Black Palm ought to be within the moderate vary for an imported tropical wood. This wood species is not listed within the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of vulnerable species.
Common Uses: The Black palm is known as the celestial tree as all the components of this tree are used for one or the opposite purpose. Such as wood, fruit, sap, sprout, leaves, trunk, and crown.
Wood: The wood is used in the form of Flooring, boatbuilding, walking sticks, knife, and gear handles, rafters, furniture, and turned objects.
Fruit: In Kerala, it is known as Pananungu whereas, in-state, it's known as Nungu (நுங்கு). Ice apples in Indonesia are termed Buah palmyra or Siwalan. The soft orange-yellow pericarp pulp of the ripe fruit is syrupy, dense, and edible, made in vitamins A and C. They conjointly contain a bitter compound known as flabelliferrins, that are steroidal saponins.
Sap: Obtaining the sap historically involves sound the highest shoots and grouping the dripping juice in hanging material pots (in some regions utilize plastic or bamboo bottles). The juice collected in the evening or when fermentation becomes bitter is termed Tadi (ताडी) in Marathi. This sap was the most supply of sugar production in Thailand even before sugarcane, as for the vocabulary Nahm-Taal (น้ำตาล) that accustomed decision any quite sugar in Thailand virtually suggests that the water of tala palm
A syrupy sap known as the mixed drink will be obtained from the young inflorescence, either male or feminine. A mixed drink is hard to create a drink known as liquor, or it is targeted to a crude sugar known as sugar.
Sprouts: In the Indian states, the seeds are planted and created to germinate and therefore the fleshy stems (below the surface) are stewed or roasted and eaten. It is fibrous and alimental. The germinated seed's hard shell is additionally cut open to take out the fresh kernel, that tastes sort of a sweeter water chestnut. The white kernel of the ripe palm fruit when being left for a couple of months is used as an offering in Lakshmi Puja in varied parts of Bengal and is additionally eaten raw.
Leaves: The Borassus flabellifer leaves are used for thatching, mats, baskets, fans, hats, umbrellas, and as writing material. All the literature of the recent Tamil was written in preserved Palm leaves conjointly called the Palm-leaf manuscript. In Tamil Yaedu or Olai chuvadi. Most of the traditional literature in Telugu is written on palm leaves (Tala Patra grandpas).In Indonesia, the leaves were utilized in the traditional culture as paper, called "lontar". Leaves of appropriate size, shape, texture, and maturity were chosen and so seasoned by boiling in saltwater with turmeric powder, as a preservative. The leaves were then dried. After they were dry enough, the face of the leaf was polished with pumice, cut into the right size, and a hole created in one corner. Every leaf creates four pages. The writing has finished a stylus and had a cursive and interconnected vogue. The stem of the leaves has thorny edges (called "karukku" in Tamil). The skin of the stem will be peeled off and be used as rope and also used to weave into cots. In some parts of the state, a variety of rice flour cake (called "Kolukattai'') is ready using the leaf. in the eastern part of, the leaves are accustomed to creating hand fans.
Trunk: The stalks are used to create fences and also produce a powerful, thin fiber appropriate for cordage and brushes. The black timber is difficult, heavy, and sturdy and is extremely valued for construction.
Crown: When the crown of the tree is removed, the section from which the leaves grow out is an edible cake. This is often known as 'pananchoru in Tamil.
Roots: In Cambodia, where the palm is understood as thnôt' (Khmer), the roots are dried and smoked to heal nasal complaints.
Borassus flabellifer contains a growth pattern, very large size, and clean habits that create it a beautiful decorative tree, cultivated for planting in gardens and parks as landscape palm species.
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