Osage Orange

Osage Orange

Introduction

 

This small deciduous tree or massive large shrub is known as the osage orange that is found profusely within the South-central united states of America. Although the name of the wood is osage orange it is only distinctly related to the orange family, but it is a true member of the mulberry. A fun truth with mentioning concerning the osage orange is that it was one of the first trees utilized in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Great Plains Shelterbelt" WPA project, that was launched in 1934 as an ambitious plan to modify weather and forestall soil erosion within the Great Plains states, and by 1942 resulted in the planting of 30,233 shelterbelts containing 220 million trees that stretched for 18,600 miles (29,900 km).

 

Maclura pomifera prefers a deep and fertile soil, however is hardy over most of the contiguous united states, wherever it is used as a hedge. It should be frequently pruned to stay in bounds, and also the shoots of one year can grow one to two meters (3–6 ft) long, making it suitable for coppicing. A neglected hedge can become fruit-bearing that is not favorable because it produces latex secretions and features a woody pulp, therefore, being unfit for the consumption by both humans and forging animals. Although the edible seeds are being consumed by squirrels. This plant has a significantly great potential to invade unmanaged habitats which may sometimes result in competition of resources with the other plants that were already present there. It is remarkably free from insect predators and fungal diseases because the compounds extracted from the fruit, when concentrated, might repel insects. A thornless male cultivar of the species exists and is vegetatively reproduced for decorative use. M. pomifera is cultivated in Italy, former Yugoslavia, Romania, former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and India

 

Osage Orange features a comparatively low modulus of elasticity compared to its weight and modulus of rupture that helps explain why it is generally used for archery bows. It’s generally referred to as Bois d’arc, which accurately means “bow wood” in American French. The wood is additionally terribly stable, with the very little seasonal or environmental movement. One useful characteristic which will facilitate separate it from lookalikes like Mulberry or Black Locust (besides being heavier) is that mock orange contains a soluble yellow dye, thus putting shavings into the water can turn the water yellow.

 

Commonly, the wood of a related South-American species—Maclura tinctoria—is imported as Argentine osage orange. This foreign wood has the advantage of being out there in larger sizes, with boards having fewer knots and defects than the smaller domestic species, osage orange. mock orange has been shown in studies to supply a lot of BTUs once burned than the other domestic hardwood and is consequently generally used as fuelwood.

Sap secreted from this wood while operating with it is aforesaid to have been reportable to cause dermatitis. so safety measures and proper equipment ought to be used while working with this wood. mock orange is extraordinarily sturdy and is taken into account to be one in all the foremost decay-resistant woods in North America. This wood additionally happens to be very durable in contact with the ground.

 

Specification

 

Common Name(s): 

Osage Orange, Horse Apple, Hedge Apple, Bois d’arc, bodark, bodock, bow-wood, monkey ball, monkey brains, yellow-wood, and mock orange.

 

Scientific Name: 

Maclura pomifera

 

Distribution

Osage orange's pre-Columbian range was mostly restricted to a small space in what is currently us, specifically the Red River drainage of Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas, moreover as well Blackland Prairies and iron oak savannas. A disjunct population additionally occurred within the Chisos Mountains of Texas. it has since become widely naturalized within us and Ontario, Canada. Bow wood has been planted altogether in the 48 contiguous states of the US and in southeastern Canada. The most important known mock orange tree is found at River Farm, in Alexandria, Virginia.

 

Tree Size: 

This tree can grow up to a height of 50-60 ft (15-18 m) tall, with a trunk diameter of about 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) 

 

Average Dried Weight: 

The average dried weight of this wood is about 54 lbs/ft3 (855 kg/m3)

 

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .76, .86

 

Janka Hardness: 2,620 lbf (11,640 N)

 

Color and Appearance: 

The heartwood of this wood is golden to bright yellow with a way lighter sapwood. The wood eventually inevitably ages to a darker medium brown with time primarily because of exposure to ultraviolet that may be an ordinarily seen property among several exotic kinds of wood.

 

Grain and Texture:

The grain pattern is straight, with a fine to medium texture. High natural luster that is because of the high content of oil that this tree produces. Ring-porous; giant to terribly giant earlywood pores 2-3 pores wide, little latewood pores in clusters and tangential bands; tyloses extraordinarily abundant; growth rings distinct; slender to medium rays visible while not lens, spacing normal; parenchyma vasicentric, lozenge, and merging.



Workability:

Working this mock orange may be troublesome because of its hardness and density, although it is reported to possess a very little dulling effect on cutting edges. It turns well, and conjointly takes stains, glues, and finishes well with a gorgeous lustrous finish.

 

Odor:

There is no characteristic odor produced while operating with this wood.

 

Availability:

Having generally little, crooked, and knotty trunks, bow wood isn’t sometimes harvested for lumber, however, will often be found purchasable in either board or little turning block kind. because of its domesticity and adequate offer, the price ought to be moderate, although doubtless to be above most different native lumbers on account of its “specialty” standing. This wood species isn't listed within the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of threatened Species.

 

Common Uses:

A few main common uses are as follows, the building of fence posts, making dye, archery bows, musical instruments, turnings, and different little specialty wood items.

The Maclura pomifera is usually trained as a hedge; once planted in rows on a boundary, it forms a good spiny barrier. The tree also is a hedgerow and protects the other plants because it will withstand wind currents to a certain limit. it is ordinarily used as a tree row hedgerow in grassland states, which provides it one among its colloquial names, "hedge apple". It's hard yellow-orange wood, formerly used for bows and war clubs by the Osage and different Native American tribes, is typically used for railway ties and fence posts.

 

A yellow-orange dye may be extracted from the wood, which may be used as a substitute for fustic and amine dyes. At present, florists use the fruits of M. pomifera for ornamental purposes.

 

A medicinal property that this tree has is used to treat problems associated with the eyes. The Comanche tribe traditionally used a root/water infusion for eye conditions

 

When dried, the wood has the very best heating value of any commonly obtainable North American wood and burns long and hot.

 

Its dense grain structure makes for good tonal properties. Production of wind instrument instruments and waterfowl game calls are common uses for the wood

 

A chemistry professor at the University of Alabama claimed that a single Maclura pomifera placed in a very room would move cockroaches. Research and analysis have shown that compounds extracted from the fruit, once concentrated, might repel insects. However, the present concentrations of those compounds within the fruit are far too low to make the fruit a good repellant.



Frequently asked questions

 

How long do osage orange trees live?

Mature trees have trunks as thick as 2 feet in diameter. Osage orange has a much shorter lifespan when compared to other trees, as these trees only live up to about 75 years.

 

How much does a cord of osage orange weigh?

The average dried weight of this wood is about 54 lbs/ft3 (855 kg/m3)

 

Is Osage orange a hardwood?

The osage orange is a hardwood which is also a small deciduous tree or massive large shrub is known as the osage orange that is found profusely within the South-central united states of America. Although the name of the wood is osage orange it is only distinctly related to the orange family, but it is a true member of the mulberry.

 

How fast does osage orange grow?

Osage orange will grow to 10 feet tall within 5 years, eventually reaching 20 to 40 feet. Its tendency to branch low on the plant enables the plant to form an impermeable thicket all on its own, making a great livestock barrier.

 

What is osage orange used for?

A few main common uses are as follows, the building of fence posts, making dye, archery bows, musical instruments, turnings, and different little specialty wood items.

The Maclura pomifera is usually trained as a hedge; once planted in rows on a boundary, it forms a good spiny barrier. The tree also is a hedgerow and protects the other plants because it will withstand wind currents to a certain limit. it is ordinarily used as a tree row hedgerow in grassland states, which provides it one among its colloquial names, "hedge apple". It's hard yellow-orange wood, formerly used for bows and war clubs by the Osage and different Native American tribes, is typically used for railway ties and fence posts.

 

A yellow-orange dye may be extracted from the wood, which may be used as a substitute for fustic and amine dyes. At present, florists use the fruits of M. pomifera for ornamental purposes.

 

A medicinal property that this tree has is used to treat problems associated with the eyes. The Comanche tribe traditionally used a root/water infusion for eye conditions

 

When dried, the wood has the very best heating value of any commonly obtainable North American wood and burns long and hot.

 

Its dense grain structure makes for good tonal properties. Production of wind instrument instruments and waterfowl game calls are common uses for the wood

 

A chemistry professor at the University of Alabama claimed that a single Maclura pomifera placed in a very room would move cockroaches. Research and analysis have shown that compounds extracted from the fruit, once concentrated, might repel insects. However, the present concentrations of those compounds within the fruit are far too low to make the fruit a good repellant.



Where do osage orange trees grow?

Osage orange's pre-Columbian range was mostly restricted to a small space in what is currently us, specifically the Red River drainage of Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas, moreover as well Blackland Prairies and iron oak savannas. A disjunct population additionally occurred within the Chisos Mountains of Texas. it has since become widely naturalized within us and Ontario, Canada. Bow wood has been planted altogether in the 48 contiguous states of the US and in southeastern Canada. The most important known mock orange tree is found at River Farm, in Alexandria, Virginia.

 

Where to buy osage orange wood?

Visit https://exoticwoodzone.com/ to more about Osage orange wood and many other woods and to place your order.



References

https://www.wood-database.com/osage-orange/

https://www.britannica.com/plant/Osage-orange

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maclura_pomifera

https://lancaster.unl.edu/hort/articles/2002/hedgeapple.shtml

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